Vol 7, No 4 (2021)


Determination of the order of damage to a cotton cloth moistened with water when fired from a Glock 17 pistol

Stepanov S.A., Krupin K.N., Globa I.V., Maksimov A.V., Kislov M.A.


BACKGROUND: To determine the order of the shot from a firearm, the presence of soot deposits and additional factors of the shot on the surface of the fabric is investigated. These signs were detected and tested on dry targets, but not studied on a wet target. There is no data in the available literature that allows determining the order of a shot on a water-soaked target.

AIMS: To identify morphological differences between gunshot wounds of dry and water-soaked tissue.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the experiment, a target object made of cotton calico was used; a Glock 17 pistol; 9×19 Parabellum cartridges. There were two groups of targets ― moistened with running water from a spray gun and dry. After impregnation, the fabric was hung in a vertical position on a thick cardboard substrate, and then a shot was fired. The firearm (Glock 17) was fixed on the frame, the muzzle end was directed towards the target at an angle of 90º. Shots were fired from a distance of 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm and further in increments of 10 cm to 100 cm inclusive. At each distance, 10 shots were fired, from which 3 targets were selected that had the most pronounced morphological changes: thermally altered fibers on the front surface of the target, along the edge of the gunshot injury, along the depth of penetration of the wiping belt. After that, the barrel of the firearm was cleaned. The study of the affected targets was carried out using a Leica M125 stereomicroscope. The results obtained during the experiment were entered into the MS Excel table where statistical processing was performed. A conditional probability was calculated for each feature. The diagnostic coefficient (DC) was calculated, and the Kulbak formula was used to assess the informativeness of the selected features.

RESULTS: It was revealed that signs of thermal action and the deposition of soot on the front side of the target are found on dry targets. Thermally altered filaments were not detected on wet targets, and the products of the shot penetrate the inter-fiber space. The thermal effect is manifested by the formation of flask-like and hemp-like endings of the fibers of the threads along the edge of the gunshot injury.

CONCLUSION: The detection of signs of thermal exposure, as well as the deposition of soot only on the front surface of the target, suggests that the shot was fired into a dry cloth. Penetration of the products forming the metallization belt into the inter-fiber space, as well as the absence of thermally altered threads, is characteristic of gunshot damage to wet targets.

Described changes in the protocol for registration of morphological lesions in the presence of an expert. The results of this study provide a better situational expertise.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(4):5-12
pages 5-12 views

Features of the ejection and topography of the distribution of metal particles of a destroyed projectile after overcoming an obstacle made of triplex glass of a car

Leonov S.V., Pinchuk P.V., Suhareva M.A., Shakiryanova J.P., Shishkin Y.Y.


BACKGROUND: The article describes experimental studies aimed at studying the features of post-retrograde gunshot trauma using the latest modern methods of forensic medical research.

AIMS: The aim of the work was to study the nature of the distribution of metal particles of a destroyed firearm projectile after passing through an obstacle ― triplex glass.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: As a barrier, car windshield triplex windows are used, located at an angle of 60° to the aiming line. The shots were fired from the Saiga-MK carbine with 5.45×39 BPZ FMJ cartridges. During the experiments, shots were fired from a distance of 10 m (a total of 30 shots were fired). White cotton fabric (calico) with dimensions of 100×150 cm, fixed on a chipboard, was used as targets. The distance between the target and the barrier was 100 cm. The targets were studied using a scanning electron microscope Hitachi FlexSem 1000 II and an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer Bruker Quantax 80. In the course of the experiment, high-speed video shooting was carried out with a Sony RX0 video camera with a frequency of 1000 fps.

RESULTS: A frame-by-frame study of the obtained video recordings showed that the deviation of the flight of the projectile fragments from the original trajectory was up to 10º side of the normal to the back surface of the glass. The fragments of the projectile, having overcome the barrier, moved in stages, in 3 phases: overcoming the barrier, ejecting fragments in the form of a cone, breaking through the target and retrograde movement of the fragments of the barrier. The scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy studies showed that the topography and morphology of the distribution of metals on the target surface correspond to the data of the analysis of the movement of parts of a firearm during high-speed video shooting. The metal alloy found on the target contained the following elements: plumbum (Pb), cuprum (Cu), antimony (Sb), and kalium (K).

CONCLUSION: When conducting an experimental study, it was found that various types of particles that were destroyed during the passage of the barrier, a firearm projectile, are registered on the surface of the target. The nature of the particle distribution and their morphology are very specific, and most likely a qualitative assessment of the projectile particles on the target will allow us to determine the distance of the shot beyond the barrier.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(4):13-18
pages 13-18 views

Double exponential model of corpse cooling under conditions of linearly varying ambient temperature

Nedugov G.V.


BACKGROUND: The main condition for the correctness of determining the postmortem interval by the method of thermometry of the deep tissues of the corpse is the constancy of the ambient temperature. This condition significantly limits the range of application of the method. The priority of thermometry of the core of the body in the diagnosis of prescription of death is explained by the slower cooling of deep tissues, which allows to increase the duration of the postmortem interval available for diagnosis, and less exposure to the influence of various random factors on the cooling process. The finite element models proposed recently can take into account almost all essential cooling conditions, including changes in ambient temperature, however, due to their high complexity, they require serious physical and mathematical training and technical skills, expensive software and postmortem computed tomography. For these reasons, they have not yet found wide application in expert practice.

In this article, a mathematical model of cooling the core of a corpse at a linearly varying ambient temperature is proposed.

AIMS: Construction a mathematical model of cooling the core of a corpse based on the Marshall-Hoare phenomenological law under conditions of linearly varying external temperature, to find a numerical algorithm for solving the model and to develop a computer program that implements it.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A direct analytical modeling of the corpse cooling under conditions of linearly varying ambient temperature was carried out, performed on the basis of the Marshall-Hoare phenomenological cooling law and focused on solving the problem of determination of the postmortem interval by rectal or cranioencephalic temperature.

RESULTS: A mathematical model of cooling the core of a corpse under conditions of linearly varying ambient temperature has been developed. The chord method is proposed as a numerical algorithm for solving this model. The developed mathematical model and an iterative algorithm for its solution, as well as procedures for calculating interval estimates of the postmortem interval, are implemented in the C# language in the format of the Warm Bodies MHNH computer program.

CONCLUSIONS: It is advisable to use the proposed model and the program implementing it in forensic medical expert practice when determining the postmortem interval by the rectal or cranioencephalic temperature of a corpse in conditions of linearly varying ambient temperature.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(4):19-28
pages 19-28 views

“Rapid DNA” ― new horizons of forensic DNA profiling using full cycle genetic analyzers

Zemskova E.Y., Sokolova N.R., Isupov S.V., Ivanov P.L.


BACKGROUND: The study is a part of a comprehensive research conducted at the Russian Center of Forensic Medical Expertise of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation with the ultimate goal of development and implementation of new effective technologies for molecular genetic identity testing and kinship analysis in the realm of national forensic expertise.

AIMS: The objective of the study is to evaluate the possibilities of the “Rapid DNA” technology in application to forensic DNA analysis. One may expect that this technology in the future will ensure the creation of an operational and highly effective procedure for forensic DNA profiling.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The methodical basis of the work is the genotyping of polymorphic STR-loci of chromosomal DNA in biological material using high-tech fully automated (full cycle) analytical platform RapidHIT: namely, RapidHIT 200 (Integenx, USA) and RapidHIT-ID (Life Technologies/Thermo Fisher, IntegenX (USA) instruments.

RESULTS: Buccal epithelium and blood samples, while being the most common in a forensic DNA testing, have been examined as a validation test objects. Then experiments were carried out with real expert material such as cigarette butts, hair, nails, bones, chewing gum; swabs from different surfaces were examined as test samples as well.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on the data obtained, it can be stated that the Rapid DNA technology as it is implemented in the full-cycle genetic analyzers IntegenX RapidHIT 200 (Integenx, USA) and RapidHIT ID (Thermo Fisher, IntegenX, USA), according to the criteria studied, in general supports the idea of to be introduced into the practice of forensic DNA analysis.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(4):29-38
pages 29-38 views


Pathomorphological changes due to helium inhalation: an expert case report

Aleksandrova L.G., Anisimov A.A.


BACKGROUND: Helium, being an inert substance, does not have a significant effect on the human body, but sometimes at very high concentrations in the air, it can cause suffocation and a state of oxygen deficiency. Oxygen-helium therapy has proven to be the most effective recovery, rehabilitation, and treatment for all types of lung damage and reduced saturation. It is even included in the recommendations for preventing, diagnosing, and treating COVID-19.

Deaths due to inhalation of inert gases, especially helium, are sporadic in forensic practice. As a rule, the probability of death in such cases is most often associated with man-made accidents or violations of safety regulations when performing technological processes and operations related to the use of gas.

Safety instructions for handling helium warn of possible damage to the mucous membrane of the eyes and frostbite of the skin, as well as mechanical injury when a heavy gas cylinder falls.

CASE PRESENTATION: Inert gases do not interact with other chemicals. However, we encountered a suicide case where an inert gas was chosen as a means. Inhalation of helium caused macro- and micromorphological changes in the human body, which led to a fatal outcome.

The case is illustrated by photographs of microscopic preparations, which demonstrate the absence of specific signs of toxic effects on the organs and tissues of the deceased.

CONCLUSION: Despite the substance’s extreme volatility, the compressed gas’s pressure and low temperature can cause various injuries and even death. The study of general pathomorphology can be helpful in the conduct of a forensic medical examination.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(4):39-44
pages 39-44 views


On the classification and terminology of cadaveric phenomena

Tkhakakhov A.A.


The classification of cadaveric phenomena (post-mortal changes) generally accepted in scientific forensic medicine is outdated, is based on uncertain and incorrect principles (time and sequence of development), but throughout the long historical period in special literature is subject to practically unchanged and additions, contains contradictory and ambiguously interpreted definitions and terms, and therefore needs to be revision and revised.

The purpose of the review is to critically analyze and reveal the shortcomings and imperfections of the canonical classification and terminology of cadaveric phenomena, to develop a modern scientifically based classification of cadaveric phenomena, to clarify the terminology of some of them to reveal the shortcomings and imperfections of the canonical classification and terminology of cadaveric phenomena, to develop a modern scientifically based systematization of posthumous changes based on clear classification principles, to clarify and concretize the names of some of them.

The basic domestic textbooks for higher education institutions and manuals for forensic medical experts and doctors in forensic medicine from 1950 to the present have been studied. The methods of critical analysis and formal logic were used.

A new forensic medical classification of cadaveric changes depending on their origin (cause of occurrence) has been developed, classification groups are supplemented by previously unaccounted representatives and their terminology with latin names has been optimized. It is emphasized that between these groups there is no regularity and strict sequence in the timing of the onset of development and macroscopic manifestations.

In the presented new classification, posthumous changes without contradictions and double interpretation are arranged strictly in accordance with the principle of systematization. The proposed improved terms and definitions of some cadaveric changes (processes) are more concrete and expedient.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(4):45-50
pages 45-50 views

Ways to standardize the terminology used in forensic medicine

Buromskiy I.V., Sidorenko E.S., Ermakova Y.V.


Incorrect use of terminology leads to serious, sometimes fundamental errors both in the scientific field and in forensic medical practice. The essence of the problem lies in the neglect of the fundamental requirements imposed on the terms and concepts used.

The authors propose a comprehensive approach to the standardization of terminology used in forensic medicine. Special attention is paid to the actual problem of synonymy and polysemy when using special terminology in forensic science and practice.

A detailed interpretation of the basic principles of the choice of the term, named in GOST R ISO 704-2010 “Terminological work. Principles and methods”. The principles of transparency, consistency, adequacy, linguistic economy, derivability and articulation, linguistic correctness, native language preferences are revealed. A clear algorithm for choosing principles is given in order to avoid different approaches to the definition of terms and concepts in order to provide the most correct, accurate and unambiguously understood information, especially with the formal presence of several designations.

The authors substantiate the use by a forensic medical expert in his practical and scientific work of only unified terminology based on the principle of stable unambiguity of terms. The article focuses on the importance of the correct use of terms that are essential when applying them in the professional activity of a forensic medical expert.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(4):51-56
pages 51-56 views


Review of the collective monograph by T.V. Semina, V.A. Klevno, A.Yu. Gusev, O.V. Veselkina “Criminal liability of a doctor in modern Russia” edited by T.V. Semina

Bukalerova L.A., Ostroushko A.V.


The authors reviewed the monograph by T.V. Semina, V.A. Klevno, A.Yu. Gusev, O.V. Veselkina “Criminal liability of a doctor in modern Russia” under the general edition of T.V. Semina.

This monograph has an important theoretical, educational and practical value, will make a significant contribution to minimizing cases of criminal prosecution of doctors, and will also serve as a good tool for training highly qualified personnel in legal and medical specialties.

The publication can be recommended to practicing doctors, administrations of medical institutions, forensic medical experts, researchers, graduate students and students of medical specialties, as well as to a wide range of readers.

The authors gave a review of the collective monograph by T.V. Semina, V.A. Klevno, A.Yu. Guseva and O.V. Veselkina «Criminal liability of a doctor in modern Russia» under the general editorship of T.V. Semina.

A monograph on a new, relevant, little-studied topic is of great theoretical, cognitive and practical importance, makes a significant contribution to minimizing cases of criminal prosecution of doctors, since the ultimate responsibility for the deterioration of patients’ health in case of poor-quality treatment lies with the attending physician.

The Decree of the President of the Russian Federation «On the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation» provides that the state socio-economic policy being implemented in the Russian Federation is aimed, in particular, at ensuring a decent life and free development of a person, creating conditions for improving the health of citizens, increasing life expectancy, reduction in mortality.

The healthcare industry affects the most valuable thing that humanity has - life and health: all this makes the problem of criminal liability of a doctor, its importance and relevance, particularly acute. In Russia, over the past five years, the number of criminal cases against doctors has increased 5 times; The medical community fears not only criminal prosecution, but also the criminalization of the profession. Patients’ rights activists also believe that criminal punishment deprives the profession of the opportunity to recognize doctors’ mistakes, analyze and correct them. Instead, doctors are intimidated by the possibility of criminal punishment, and they develop only a criminal mindset.

In a number of cases, the life and health of citizens become the object of criminal encroachment on the part of medical workers, which makes iatrogenic crime one of the pressing problems of modern Russia, which is currently not properly studied, understood and analyzed from a scientific standpoint. In this regard, the collective monograph «Criminal liability of a doctor in modern Russia» should be recognized as timely and very relevant.

The publication will serve as a good guide for the training of highly qualified personnel in legal and medical specialties and can be recommended to practitioners, administrations of medical organizations, forensic experts, researchers, graduate students and students of medical specialties, as well as a wide range of readers.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(4):57-62
pages 57-62 views

Review of the monograph by V.A. Klevno, S.N. Kulikov, A.V. Kopylov “Atlas of medical criteria of harm to health” edited by V.A. Klevno

Buromski I.V., Ermakova Y.V., Sidorenko E. .


A review of the second edition of the collective monograph by V.A. Klevno, S.N. Kulikova, A.V. Kopylov “Atlas of medical criteria for harm to health” (under the general editorship of V.A. Klevno).

The first edition of the Atlas was well received by the medical community, as evidenced by the fact that it has become a bibliographic rarity. During the time that has passed since the publication of the first edition, the author and his colleagues have carried out a large number of scientific research and development, among which the most significant are doctoral and candidate dissertations, published monographs, scientific and practical manuals, and other scientific publications. With this in mind, the release of the second edition of the collective monograph should be recognized as extremely timely and relevant.

Assessing the peer-reviewed work, it should be stated that the head of the team of authors, Professor V.A. Klevno — a colossal work has been done to create a team of like-minded people, and this work has been crowned with a well-deserved success: it is distinguished by novelty and theoretical and applied significance, thoroughness, completeness and relative sufficiency.

Among the undoubted advantages of the Atlas, it is necessary to note the concise scientific and literary style of presenting the material, its clear structuredness, and the uniformity of the approach to the choice and sequence of presentation for each chapter and each subsection within it, which facilitate the perception of the material by the user; the high quality of illustrative material, an exhaustive selection of recommended scientific literature on the topic under consideration.

The use of the definitions and illustrations given in the Atlas in the practice of doctors, most of all forensic doctors, will facilitate and increase the objectivity of the choice in each specific case of the type and localization of damage and, in general, will positively affect the production of one of the most frequently prescribed forensic medical examinations — to determine the severity of harm caused to human health.

The monograph has an important theoretical, cognitive, and practical value makes a significant contribution to the training of highly qualified medical personnel, primarily forensic medical experts.

The publication can be recommended to forensic experts, researchers, graduate students, and students of medical specialties, as well as to a wide range of readers.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(4):63-67
pages 63-67 views

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