Vol 7, No 1 (2021)


Comparative identificational characteristic of artificial leather with embossed surface damages caused by airgun pistol pellets with different head end forms

Alyabyev F.V., Belousova O.A., Chesalov N.P., Lubina T.A., Sapega A.S.


Background: Authors of this article have made a comparative identificational description of artificial leather damage caused by air gun pistol pellets with different head end forms. Aim: This study aimed to provide a comparative identification characteristic of injuries caused by shots from an air pistol MP-53 M on artificial leather with a raised surface and a textile net glued to the wrong side at different angles and from different distances by bullets with different head end shapes (hemispherical, flat round, and conical). Used: Air pistol MP-53M, bullets with different head end shape, a fragment of black artificial leather with an embossed surface, and a textile mesh glued to the wrong side. Shots were fired at close range, 50 and 100 cm at angles of 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°. The prevailing forms of damage (defects) of artificial skin, characteristic of bullets with a hemispherical, conical, and flat rounded head end, dependence of the form of damage (defect) on the distance of the shot, and the angle of entry of the bullet into the material. Conclusion: A comparative study showed that the form of damage to the material depends on the head end shape of bullets. Moreover, intragroup differences were found in the damage due to the distance of the shot and angle of entry of the bullet into the material in groups of bullets with the same head end shape.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(1):4-9
pages 4-9 views

Children's non-fatal road traffic injury in Krasnodar in 2015-2019

Anuprienko S.A., Pron E.S., Barmakova J.S., Porodenko V.А.


Background: For many years, road traffic injuries have occupied a leading position in the structure of mechanical grass in most of the leading countries of the world. Children are particularly vulnerable to road accidents due to their psychoemotional and anatomical and physiological characteristics. Aims: To study the epidemiological aspects and features of injuries with a forensic medical assessment of injuries in children in various types of road accidents in the city of Krasnodar. Material and methods: Archival medical documentation of the Department of forensic medical examination of victims, accused, and other persons of the State Budgetary Institution “Bureau of SME” of the Ministry of Health of the Krasnodar Territory in relation to 1,134 children under the age of 18 years who were injured in an accident on the territory of Krasnodar in 2015–2019; analytical, statistical, and retrospective research methods were used. Results: Children were most often injured in the summer, especially in the month of August, on the second day of the week and at night; >50% of the injured children were pedestrians; combined nature of the injury was in 38.9% of cases, and most common injuries were localized in the head (45.8%) and lower extremities (38%); the most frequent soft tissue damage in all young road users were bruises; injuries in the cabin were more common soft tissue injuries of the head; skull fractures prevailed in drivers; severe forms of traumatic brain injuries were most common in pedestrians; fractures of the limbs were detected only in older age groups, most often in pedestrians; drivers and pedestrians were more likely to have damaged shin bones, whereas passengers have it in the femur and forearm; serious health damage was detected in almost every seventh child (13.8%), most often in children under three years old and 14–17 years old; and light damage in every fifth (22.1%) child and twice as often as moderate health damage (11.8%). Conclusion: The level of child road traffic injuries in the city of Krasnodar in recent years has not decreased and the negative trend of accidents related to an increased incidence of trauma in children, resulting in serious injury.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(1):10-20
pages 10-20 views

Retrospective analysis of forensic sectional examinations after a coronary bypass surgery

Rubtsov A.E., Rubtsova A.V., Morozov M.Y., Morozov Y.E.


Background: In the case of sudden or violent death, occurring in the rehabilitation period after a previously performed coronary bypass surgery, a forensic medical examination is usually prescribed. In recent years, the number of such forensic examinations has increased. At the same time, problems were revealed related to the lack of guidelines for the study of coronary shunts and recommendations on the structure of forensic diagnosis. Aims: This study aimed to summarize significant differences and features of coronary shunt research methods and give examples of diagnosis in cases of forensic examinations of corpses of patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery. Conclusions (acts) of forensic medical examinations (studies) of corpses performed at the bureau of forensic medical examination of the city of Moscow for the five-year period in 2012–2016 were studied. Cases of forensic examinations in patients who had previously undergone coronary bypass surgery were identified, original technical methods for sectional study of postoperative shunts are summarized, and options for constructing and substantiating sectional diagnoses were developed. In the analysis of 135, 446 conclusions (acts), 56 cases of forensic examinations of corpses of persons with signs of previously performed coronary bypass surgery were selected. Distinctive features of original methods for the study of shunts, tasks resolved during the study of native and prosthetic heart vessels, and examples of the design of forensic protocols are described. Examples of construction and substantiation of forensic diagnoses are also provided. Conclusion: This study revealed original technical methods for the study of coronary shunts during the concealment of corpses and examples of protocols of identified changes, and options for the formulation of forensic medical diagnoses in cases of forensic examinations of corpses of persons with a previously performed coronary bypass surgery are given.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(1):21-28
pages 21-28 views

Mathematical modeling of the corpse cooling under conditions of varying ambient temperature

Nedugov G.V.


Background: The constancy of the ambient temperature is the main condition to correctly determine the time of death by thermometric method. However, in practice, this requirement is met only in cases of death in closed rooms. In this study, an exponential mathematical model was proposed for corpse cooling under any changes in ambient temperature. Aim: This study aimed to develop a mathematical model to determine the time of death based on the Newton–Richman cooling law in changing ambient temperature conditions. Materials and methods: Mathematical modeling of corpse cooling under changing ambient temperature is performed, focusing on problem solving of thermometric determination of the time of death. The axillary hollow was used as the diagnostic zone of the corpse, and the temperature of which at the time of death is taken is 36.6°С. Results: A method of reverse reproduction of the cadaver temperature in conditions of changing ambient temperature has been developed. Results allow a relatively simple analytical determination of the time of death in the early postmortem period. Conclusions: The proposed method is advisable to be used in forensic medical practice to determine the time of death in early postmortem period. The developed mathematical model is implemented in the format of the application program Warm Bodies NRN. Use of tympanic and intraocular thermometry was recommended within the proposed model.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(1):29-35
pages 29-35 views


On the issue of terminology in forensic medicine and its compliance with the applicable GOST standards of scissors

Nazarova N.E., Nazarov Y.V.


Background: The terminology used in the production of forensic medical examinations should be interpreted unambiguously by forensic medical experts, employees of investigative bodies, and doctors of other specialties and be the basis for their mutual understanding. The examination of clothing and shoes, as well as their damage, is an important part of the expert’s work. However, in the presence of forensic and forensic literature on this issue, currently increasing lack of educational and methodological publications covering modern terminological definitions is observed. During the production of forensic medical examinations of material evidence, the expert often comes across trace-forming objects (or parts of them), which is found difficult to name or describe without prejudice to an unambiguous interpretation. Attention is drawn to the fact that names of the scissors’ areas are ignored in the practice of forensic medicine. Even with the well-established concept of “scissors branch” in expert practice, different points of view are made. Aims: This study aimed to identify terminology that defines standards that ensure mutual understanding between specialists in different fields and consolidate unambiguous terms and definitions at the level of knowledge and concepts of modern science. As a result of the conducted research, authors come to the conclusion that in order to reduce the risk of different understanding of terms (including nonmedical ones), it is necessary to refer to the State Standards of the Russian Federation (GOST). As an example, this article presents the terms of the current State Standard 51268-9, wherein the main trace-forming elements of scissors are not branches but knives, and the concept of “branches” does not contain this GOST. Conclusion: Standardization and bringing forensic medical terms to the corresponding GOST standards in the production of forensic medical examinations will not only increase their quality and informativeness for investigative authorities, but also eliminate discrepancies in terminology between law enforcement officers, forensic medical experts, and doctors of other specialties.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(1):36-40
pages 36-40 views

Implementation problems in criminal procedure the principles of equality and adversarial (for example, the possibility of filing by the defense of expert's opinion)

Bozhchenko A.P., Semenov S.L., Nikitin I.M., Nazarov Y.V.


Background: The European criminal law system declares principles of competition and equality of parties as fundamental to ensure respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. The domestic legal system also contains these concepts, but only the principle of competition, which includes equality, is declared as a fundamental principle. Such a seemingly insignificant difference in systems causes difficulties in implementing these principles in criminal proceedings, which is shown by the example of using special knowledge in the form of expert opinion and interrogation, and those few tools for the defense that can be used for qualified opposition by the prosecution, which builds its system of evidence on the expert’s conclusion. Vividly, implementation contradictions in the criminal process principles of equality and competition occur with the use of one of the parties (mostly by the defense) specialized knowledge in the form of imprisonment and interrogation specialist. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the problematic issues that arise in this case. Conclusion: Results of the study show the need for practical development and greater legal significance to the institution of participation of a specialist in criminal proceedings, both directly and separately through a written opinion, which meets not only the principles of modern improvement of the implementation of constitutional guarantees for justice, court access, and obtaining professional legal assistance, but also the provisions on the right to a fair trial, provided for in art. Six conventions for the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms ETS N 005 (Rome, 4 November 1950) are ratified by the Russian Federation on March 30, 1998.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(1):41-47
pages 41-47 views


Case of dental restoration by materials not permitted for use in medical practice

Nikolaychuk E.A., Iordanishvili A.K., Barinov E.K.


Introduction: In recent years, endodontic dental treatment associated with periodontal inflammation in the provision of emergency and planned dental care is not provided with the appropriate standard and quality. Clinical case: Clinical observation is done to a patient suffering from exacerbation of chronic periodontitis, who underwent restoration of 2.6 teeth with light-cured filling material 15 years ago, and intraroot pins of which are made of materials that are not approved for medical practice use. Conclusion: The use of inappropriate material in medical practice for tooth restoration gives the patient the right to seek for material and moral compensation for bodily harm.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(1):48-50
pages 48-50 views

Possibilities of a fatal damage case complex diagnostics caused by atmospheric electricity - practical observation

Karpov D.A., Terebilov A.N., Bezusova I.B., Loskutov R.O.


Background: A lightning strike causes macro- and micromorphological changes in the human body as a whole due to a combination of several damaging factors. Clinical case: Using an example from the forensic medical expert practice demonstrating the possibilities of a comprehensive approach (autopsy, biochemical, histological, and medico-forensic investigations) to the diagnosis of trauma arising from atmospheric electricity exposure. Conclusion: Complex assessment based on a wide range of laboratory studies made it possible to diagnose at a qualitatively new level, reasonably reconstruct circumstances of the injury that occurred in conditions of nonobviousness, and constructively solve a wider range of issues in the interests of the investigating authorities and court.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(1):51-55
pages 51-55 views

Identification of elements of breaking appliances in case of criminal burning

Porodenko V.A., Travenko E.N.


Introduction. This article focuses to the issue of detecting elements of firearm shells in the remains of a corpse during its criminal burning. Clinical case. An example from an expert practice is given, and method of sorting burned remains using fractional separation by fractional sieving in combination with traditional and modern forensic investigations was used. Conclusion. The case under consideration demonstrates the possibility of using a simple nondestructive method for examining cremated objects as an alternative to perform modern X-ray spectral methods, which aim to further assign forensic research in the production of forensic medical examination. Such an integrated approach significantly increases the possibilities of identifying the weapon of injury in case of a gunshot injury in cases of criminal burning of the body and submission for examination of cremated remains, allowing experts to draw well-grounded conclusions that play a significant (decisive) role.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(1):56-59
pages 56-59 views


Professor Porksheyan Ovagim Khristoforovich - outstanding forensic physician (on the occasion of his 110th birthday)

Akopov V.I., Barinov E.K.


This article is dedicated to the memory of the Head of the Department of Forensic Medicine of the Leningrad State Institute for the improvement of doctors named after S.M. Kirov O.H. Porksheyan. This article provides information about the life and activities of an outstanding scientist. The scientific contribution of the scientist to the development of forensic medicine was analyzed, and his pedagogical activity was reflected.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2021;7(1):60-64
pages 60-64 views

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